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Full text of "Political Science Of The State"

THE STATE'S RELATIONS TO RELIGION.          449
who had fallen into the habits of the Jews." The increasing
bitterness towards the Christians was due mainly to their in-
crease of numbers and the dread of their becoming a power in
the state; and their persecution was facilitated by the hatred
to which they were subject.
Another point at which the religions of the heathen touched)
the laws of the communities, was the status of the ministers
of public worship. In Greece the priest was subordinate to
the state, whether chosen or hereditary, and little more was
done by the law than to protect existing usages. At Rome
the principal colleges of priests were chosen by election or by
cooptation. The pontifices, especially the pontifex maximus,
may be said to have been the inspectors-general of whatever
took place in the public worship.
For the expenses of public religion, including the outlays
for building and repairing temples, the games, processions,
and public sacrifices, the salaries of priests and of other reli-
gious servants, great sums of money were required. These
came at Athens from the public treasury, from the rents of
religious property, or, it may be, from the liberality of the
rich.* At Rome the management of sacred property, as the
renting of land belonging to the gods, was in the hands of the
censors. It is remarkable within what strict limits the power
of acquiring property by legacy or bequest for temple uses
was kept at Rome. No god can be made an heir, says Ulpian
(frag, xxii., 6, in Huschke, u. s., p. 501), except those whom
it has been allowed by decree of the senate or constitutions
of the princes to make such. He then names eight gods
through the empire that had in his time the privilege, only
one of whom, Jupiter Tarpeius, had his temple at Rome.
The property of the gods was devoted to the objects of cziltus*
and is to be distinguished from the money devoted by the
community to matters connected with religion, as the wages
of the attendants of the priests, the salaries of the vestals and
of priests who received salaries. These public expenses were
*SeeBoeckh, Staatsh.,ii., 12, and for Rome, Mommsen in the new
Handb. d. Rom. Alterth., ii., i, 58-69.
VOL. II.29